There are different ways of propagating roses, but we will focus on the most popular = of the cuttings. Very often we manage to get the cuttings of a plant we like, and what to do next with it so that it does not die is unknown. We will help you grow beautiful flowers from cuttings of roses.
You can even grow a rose from a bouquet at home by properly rooting the stalk.
How to propagate roses by cuttings
This is a simple method, which consists in cutting cuttings with three buds and their subsequent rooting. But questions arise about how to properly cuttings, is it possible to root cuttings in water?
For cuttings, the middle or upper part of a healthy tree shoot, which is already completing flowering, is better suited. Using a special garden knife or secateurs, it is necessary to cut shoots, 10-15 centimeters long, each of which should have at least 3 buds. They need to be cut so that the lower cut, made at an angle of 45 °, is directly below the lower kidney, and the upper (straight) one is above the upper third kidney. The technology of growing roses involves the partial removal of leaves (this is necessary to reduce evaporation). In this case, the lower leaf is completely removed, and the upper ones are shortened by 1/3.
How to plant a rose stalk
What is needed ideally: a sufficient amount of light, air temperature + 23-25ºС, moderate watering and spraying.
Consider two methods of rooting cuttings of roses:
- in the soil - for this they are planted obliquely on a prepared bed (if the cuttings occur in late spring or summer), or at home in pots with a substrate of peat, sand (most) and fertile land. Cover the landing with a glass jar, creating a small greenhouse. Watering the plantings is necessary if necessary, and before planting the cuttings in the pot, you need to add well-washed coarse-grained river sand, into which you need to stick the stalk (sand will not allow the plant to rot due to excess moisture). When he begins to give young shoots, you can sometimes open the can to remove condensation.
- in water - for this, cuttings are placed in a container of water and left in a warm, well-lit place. From time to time, water needs to be changed and added, and after 20-25 days the roots will appear on the cuttings and they can be transplanted into pots with the ground. It is possible to add a stimulator of root formation to the rooting of the cuttings in water - then the roots will appear faster.
How to grow a rose from a bouquet
Very often there is a desire to grow the same flowers from a beautiful bouquet of roses. This is possible, you just need to cut the cuttings in time and germinate them correctly. Cuttings are carried out when the flowers begin to drop petals.
Cuttings are cut as usual - from below at an angle of 45º, and directly from above. There should be 1-2 kidneys on the handle. To root shoots from a bouquet is better in the soil according to general rules, but they need to be stuck into the substrate strictly vertically, deepening to the first bud. With proper care, they take root in about a month and begin to give young shoots. It should be noted that cuttings of local varieties of roses are better taken root.
In order for roses to become resistant to diseases and pests, they need to be well looked after - watered and fed in a timely manner. The first feeding is needed when young seedlings reach a height of 15 centimeters. For feeding, it is advisable to take complex fertilizer, at a dosage of 15 grams per 10 liters of water. Please note that feeding roses with nitrogen must be stopped in the middle of summer, but fertilizers with phosphorus and potassium can be applied before the fall.
Cuttings of roses in potatoes, why?
In this way, potato tuber creates nutrition and hydration for roots and cuttings to grow faster.
Fresh potatoes contain an optimal set of nutrients. This is a long-term source of constant moisture and reliable protection against hypothermia, decay, and the development of bacterial diseases that sometimes affect roses at the initial stage of growth. In addition, technically growing rose stalks in fresh potatoes is easy.
For germination of rose cuttings, take tubers recently dug, not sluggish and not spoiled. Remove all eyes to prevent germination.
If the stalk is grown in a pot in the winter, then simply select the dense, large potatoes.
For cutting cuttings, it is not recommended to use shoots with unripened buds, as well as with already faded roses, since it is very difficult to root such cuttings - they simply do not take root. Propagation by cuttings is also possible with a purchased rose from a bouquet - there is no fundamental difference. But keep in mind that Dutch roses are treated with a preserving composition that ensures the duration of storage, it is almost impossible to root them.
The length of the stalk should be 15-20 cm. Thus, from one rose or one shoot of medium length, you can get 3-4 blanks for propagation. Cuttings should be cut with a sharp tool, preferably with a garden pruner, so that the stem does not cut through when cut. The lower section is performed 2 cm below the kidney at an angle of 45 °, the upper section is 1 cm above the kidney, and the section itself can be both at an angle and straight. All lower leaves of the stem must be removed.
Next, the cuttings of the cuttings are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then put into the stimulating solution of any stimulator of root formation for a day, prepared according to the instructions for it. Replace these funds with fresh aloe juice.
After all preparations, the cuttings of roses are stuck with the bottom part into the prepared hole in the potatoes. I will clarify that the propagation of roses in potatoes is suitable only for erect varieties. To grow a climbing rose, not a cuttings are used, but a layering - a shoot dug and rooted in the soil, because growing a layering in a potato tuber is very difficult.
You can root a rose in a potato tuber at home in a pot, or by immediately placing it in open ground. Planting cuttings immediately in the soil gives an advantage - roses will not need to be replanted, and this will allow them to bloom in the same year or next spring. The area for planting cuttings should be bright, without stagnation of water and protected from the wind. Further landing technology is as follows:
- dig a trench with a depth of 20-30 cm (for planting in rows, or for further transplanting to another place) - for planting single bushes without transplanting, individual holes are dug for each plant,
- pour a layer of river sand at the bottom of the pit - this is necessary to prevent contact of the tubers with the ground, and to prevent rotting of the potato itself, and with it the cuttings,
- stick the prepared rose cuttings into the holes made in the potato tubers,
- place planting material in a trench at a distance of 15 cm from each other,
- fill the trench with 2/3 of the soil mixed with sand, lightly tamp.
Landings must be provided with a good level of humidity. Watering should be regular, but not too intense. For the first time, it is recommended to cover the cuttings with a plastic bottle with a unscrewed cap (to ensure air access). On sunny days, plants need to be shaded, on cloudy days, remove the bottle completely. About a month later, when the cuttings take root, the shelter is removed completely.
We plant a rose stalk at home
To grow roses in potatoes at home, prepare planting containers. At the bottom of the pots you need to lay the drainage, then fill the containers with the soil mixture (any storefront land for flowers is suitable), along with sand. Put the potato with the shoot in a pot. Sprinkle with soil.
So that the cuttings are more likely to take root, the soil should remain moist, so at home, in addition to watering, it is recommended to spray future roses with water additionally. Shelter from a glass jar, a plastic bottle, or a plastic bag will help maintain heat and humidity. After the buds begin to develop on the cuttings, the shelter is removed, and the seedlings are gradually adapted to environmental conditions. Particular attention should be paid to the quality of lighting, but care must be taken that the shoots do not overheat under the lamps.
What is the advantage of grafting?
To root a rose with a cuttings, you don’t need to be an experienced specialist - the procedure is available even to a beginner in horticulture with the source material. You just need to know that park yellow and wrinkled varieties do not reproduce in this way, but the climbing and miniature varieties take root without problems.
Although grafting is a longer process than planting seedlings purchased at a store, it has several important advantages.
- Cost saving and low cost method. The price of one purchased bush in a gardening center or online store is about 200-400 rubles, or even more, depending on the variety. Having bought only 2-3 bushes, you can plant a whole rose garden in a couple of years by cuttings of the shoots. And you can even ask a branch from a neighbor or friend, without spending a ruble on a future bush.
- Preserving the memory of the bouquet. Cutting chic roses will stand in a vase for a couple of weeks, often - only 3-4 days. But rooting the cuttings, it will be possible to admire the beauty of the buds every year in your own garden or in the flowerbed.
- Ease of care after landing. The bushes obtained by cuttings after planting do not form root shoots; they hibernate better from the second year than purchased varieties. Even with the freezing of the aerial parts in severe winter, roses quickly recover from sleeping buds on the roots.
- The possibility of rooting at different times of the year. Favorite varieties with beautiful buds can be propagated from late June to late July, after flowering and falling of leaves in late autumn. And also in the spring and winter, taking samples from bouquets presented on March 8 and New Year.
How to prepare cuttings
A cuttings of a rose is a small part of the stem in length from an adult plant without roots, with 2-3 living buds. Knowing how to grow a rose from a cuttings at home, you can easily turn the harvesting first into a full-fledged seedling, and eventually - into an overgrown rose bush.
It's important to know. The upper or middle part of the stem cut from a healthy plant is suitable for cuttings. It is better to choose semi-tree shoots for propagation, which are going to bloom or are already blooming, dropping the petals to the ground.
The procedure for harvesting cuttings is simple, consists of several stages.
- In the garden on a bush or from a bouquet, strong stems with beautiful buds are chosen. The shoots should be a light brown, not a green shade, since immature ones are not suitable for germination. Dark-brown lignified stems are also discarded - they usually rot, not taking root in water or a pot of earth.
- The buds that bloom, open in a vase or blossom on garden bushes are cut off - they are not needed for cultivation.
- Stems are cut into short blanks with a length of 15-25 cm, leaving 3 buds on each. A sprout is cut 1 cm above the top, a margin of 1.5-2 cm is made under the bottom. Moreover, a bottom cut is performed at an acute angle. Cut the workpiece with a sharp secateurs or scissors.
- All lower leaves and spikes are removed, the upper leaves are cut by a third to reduce moisture evaporation.
- Place the workpiece in water for 5-6 hours, stirring according to the instructions any stimulator of root growth.
After performing the above procedures, you can choose the appropriate method of reproduction - in water, a pot or in a flower bed with potatoes. Moreover, it is better to cut the roses with blanks cut from the middle of the stem.
Methods of rooting cuttings
Before you grow strong and healthy bushes in the garden, you need to figure out how to plant roses using cuttings. Experienced gardeners during reproduction use different methods that are most convenient in a given season. Some set chopped billets in glasses and jars of water, others like to immediately plant cuttings in the sand, prepared soil. The choice often depends only on the preferences of the grower.
It's important to know. The roses of Dutch varieties presented in bouquets are not suitable for reproduction, although they differ in beauty and bright colors. For long-term transportation and preservation, their cut stems are treated with special substances, so the roots do not form.
Germination in water
The easiest way to grow roses from cuttings at home is rooting in water. It includes several preparatory actions.
- Pour into glass jars with a volume of 0.3-0.5 liters of cold boiled water to a height of 4-5 cm.
- Add any root stimulant as desired. It can be diluted according to the instructions "Kornevin", "Heteroauxin", "Radifarm", "Zircon" or "Epin Extra". It is not forbidden to stir aloe juice or a little honey in water.
- Put blanks in the jars, making sure that direct sunlight from the window does not get on the glass.
- Periodically change the water to fresh so that the lower parts of the stems do not rot.
- After about a month, when the roots appear, plant in the ground, covered with plastic bottles.
Cropped bottles cannot be removed until the first leaves appear on the shoots. This method with water is most suitable for miniature and groundcover roses.
The method of growing roses in pots is considered more complicated, but the most effective. To root the cuttings, it is required to prepare directly suitable plastic containers with a volume of 0.3-0.5 l, transparent bottles or containers, soil, sand and drainage, as well as a little potassium permanganate.
The process of rooting roses in pots consists of several stages.
- Rinse the containers in a solution of potassium permanganate, dry. Such disinfection will help protect future seedlings from bacteria and diseases.
- Pour a drainage layer or pebbles, sand, expanded clay, small stones to the bottom of the pots.
- Fill the drainage with ready-made soil for roses purchased in the store or independently prepared soil mixture from sand, garden soil and peat.
- Make a small depression with your finger, gently stick the stalk into each pot under a slight slope, placing it with a sharp cut down. If several blanks are planted in a wide pot at once, the distance between them should be at least 6 cm.
- Compact the soil around the stem with palms, pour over filtered or settled water.
- Make a home "greenhouse". Cover plantings with plastic containers or cut bottles, glass jars. The wide box can be covered with foil.
- Periodically moisten the soil from the spray gun, keeping the room temperature at the level of 23-25 degrees of heat during the day and at least 18 degrees at night.
After about a month, new light green shoots and leaves will appear under the bottles on the stems. After that, plastic bottles and film can be removed, first for 5 minutes, gradually increasing the airing time. "Greenhouse" is allowed to clean only after the appearance of full leaves. It is recommended to plant such roses from pots in the open ground only next spring under favorable weather conditions.
Growing roses in potato tubers is also not difficult, this method is suitable even for beginners in the propagation of garden flowers. A set of nutrients contained in potatoes helps germinate the cuttings. Due to the moisture of tubers and timely nutrition of cuttings, seedlings grow strong and healthy, almost always take root.
The process of rooting roses in potatoes consists of several stages.
- Prepare tubers by selecting medium-sized specimens with no signs of rot, crack or disease. Potatoes should not have a flaccid peel and stains. Remove the eyes so that the workpieces do not sprout.
- Rinse the tubers in a solution of potassium permanganate, dry on a paper towel. Such disinfection will prevent possible rotting.
- To prepare cuttings with a length of about 20 cm, but not more than 25 cm.
- In each tuber, make a hole with a screwdriver or a suitable tool, insert inside the rose stems cut at an angle.
- At the bottom of the pots or boxes, pour sand to a depth of 4-5 cm, place potatoes with cuttings, setting the stems vertically.
- Sprinkle planting with a layer of earth, tamp. You can initially plant potatoes in open ground by digging a small bed. In this case, put the potatoes in a row at a distance of 15 cm from each other.
- Pour the earth with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate, cover the pots with cut plastic bottles.
All nutrients and top dressing cuttings will receive from potatoes as rooting. Do not forget about the timely watering of plantings, it is better to use slightly sweetened water for this once a week.
Growing roses in a bag
Breeding roses with cuttings at home is possible in the package. Moreover, there are several varieties of this method with moss, newspapers or pinching the stem.
- In a bag with moss. Fresh and wet moss is placed in a dense plastic bag, spread out along the bottom of the bag. Then, prepared rose cuttings are inserted inside. The bag is inflated, knotted and suspended. Watering with this variant of rooting is not required due to condensation accumulating inside, moisturizing moss and workpieces. Roots grow by the end of the month, and cuttings can be planted in the soil.
- In bag and newspapers (Burrito rooting method). Для размножения этим способом черенки вначале замачивают на сутки в воде комнатной температуры. Затем несколько штук заворачивают в обычную газету, слегка намочив бумагу. Помешают замотанный сверток в пакет, оставляют в домашних условиях при температуре чуть выше 20 градусов. Еженедельно пакет открывают, осматривают заготовки и слегка смачивают газеты. If any stalk turns black or rot, it is thrown away, replacing the paper around the remaining copies. Roots usually appear at 2-3 weeks.
- The Cherenkov method of Trannua. This method is rarely used by gardeners, has not received public calling. At the beginning or in the middle of summer, cut stems are pinched and left until the process of kidney swelling begins in the lower part. In this process, it is important to prevent the appearance of leaves from the buds, otherwise reproduction will be unsuccessful.
Planting cuttings in a permanent place
Planting young shoots in open ground is made in spring or autumn. In spring, the temperature of the soil should be above 10-12 degrees of heat, and air - not less than 15 degrees. Autumn work should be completed by mid-October, starting on the 15th of September. This is necessary so that the sprouted cuttings have time to take root before the onset of cold weather, but are not able to start new shoots.
Here are a few rules for planting cuttings with roots in open ground.
- A pit is dug 5-6 cm wider and deeper than the size of the pot in which rooting was carried out.
- At the bottom of the hole, a shovel of peat or humus is poured, sprinkled with earth on top.
- Cuttings along with an earthen lump are placed in a pit. If the roots are formed in water or a newspaper, the workpieces are first soaked in the root, only then they are carefully placed in the pits in an upright position.
- Roses fall asleep on the sides and top with nutritious soil, rammed.
- Plantings are watered and covered with cut plastic bottles for several days for better survival.
- In autumn, the soil is mulched with needles, dry grass, peat, stalks are covered with spruce branches or with special covering material.
When planting in spring, seedlings are also protected from possible frosts, covered with a film or bottles on top. Protection is removed only when true green leaves appear. Plantings are sprayed daily from the spray gun, trying not to overmoisten the soil too much.
Caring for roses after planting
After planting, roses are necessarily watered, and the earth is sprinkled with large sawdust to preserve moisture. For the first time, bushes protect against direct sunlight. The adaptation of seedlings planted from pots on the street lasts about two weeks, then they begin to grow.
Fertilizer is required only for seedlings that have grown in height by more than 12 cm. For feeding, complex liquid solutions or infusions of mullein, herbs are used. To make the garden plant strong, in the first year after planting, buds are cut, allowing the bush to direct all its forces to the formation of stems. In the autumn-winter period, young bushes are sure to shelter, protecting from severe frosts.
Subject to the above conditions, for 2-3 years from the cuttings you can plant a gorgeous flowerbed in the garden without spending money on buying seedlings in the store.