Sinus inflammation, also known as sinusitis, is a very common upper respiratory tract infection that affects millions of people every year. It manifests itself when the tissues of the paranasal sinuses - small, air-filled membranes located in the skull around the nose - become inflamed. This causes pressure in your sinuses, collecting air and mucus in the nasal cavity. If you feel sinusitis symptoms, follow a few simple steps to find out if you have sinusitis and learn some ways to relieve symptoms.
Causes of sinusitis
Inflammation of the sinuses is called sinusitis. Such inflammation is accompanied by nasal congestion, accumulation of mucous secretions in the maxillary sinuses, a serious increase in body temperature, as well as a feeling of pressure in the cavity of the frontal sinus and nose bridge.
The reasons for the formation of such an ailment are various and in each case of inflammation, a thorough examination of the body is necessary.
Most often, the main cause of the formation of sinusitis is untreated acute rhinitis or improper use of drugs. In addition, the main reasons are:
- pathological processes in the sinuses,
- frequent inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
- chronic rhinitis
- frequent hypothermia,
- trauma to the nasal cavity,
- anatomical violation of the structure of the face and nasal cavity,
- chronic inflammation.
However, the main cause of inflammation is the penetration of viruses and bacteria into the body. Especially often sinusitis occurs in patients with weakened immunity.
When the body cannot cope with inflammation on its own, the bacteria multiply in the cavity of the maxillary sinuses with a vengeance. As a result, the patient develops a serious inflammatory processwhich requires immediate treatment.
In the process of diagnosing sinusitis, it is important to understand the seriousness of the process. Such inflammation is dangerous for the patient with uncontrolled complications that can provoke brain inflammation or deafness.
How to find out if there is sinusitis or not
It is possible to determine the presence of sinusitis not only in the medical center, but also independently. However, with a serious inflammatory process, a trip to the doctor is better not to postpone. A detailed study by a professional doctor will help determine the severity of the disease in time and start treatment.
To make an accurate diagnosis, a specialist needs to conduct not only a laboratory, but also an instrumental examination.
To begin with, the doctor determines the cause of the formation of the disease, as well as the clinical picture of inflammation. This is necessary to make a treatment plan. Upon examination, the doctor usually diagnoses the following factors:
- nasal congestion,
- lack of nasal breathing,
- pain on palpation in the nose and maxillary sinuses,
- discomfort in the eye sockets and eyebrows,
- the formation of a large amount of pus,
- drainage of purulent discharge into the throat,
- swelling of the mucous membrane,
- crusts in the nasal cavity.
Later, with rhinoscopy, the doctor notes a strong change in the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity. After a visual examination of the patient, additional examinations are necessary.
- First thing is to donate blood. A general analysis will determine the bacterial origin, as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, it is important to determine the number of neutrophils.
- After which an x-ray of the nasal cavity is carried out. The picture will allow you to determine the amount of purulent discharge, as well as the degree of curvature of the nasal septum.
- For prescribing antibacterial drugs it is necessary to determine the type of pathogen of inflammation. For this, sowing of secretions from the nasal cavity is carried out.
Sometimes sinus inflammation occurs due to unhealthy teeth. If necessary, the patient may be prescribed a consultation with a dentist.
How to determine sinusitis at home
Determine the presence of inflammation in the maxillary tract at home is not easy. It is especially difficult to understand that the patient develops inflammation in the early stages, as the symptoms of sinusitis are similar to the common cold or allergic rhinitis.
Seek medical attention if you have the following symptoms:
- a feeling of pressure in the maxillary cavity,
- pain in the area of the eyebrows, cheekbones, frontal part,
- no nasal breathing
- complete or partial loss of smell,
- strong body temperature
- chills and fever
- swelling of the cheeks and eyelids.
Besides, diagnose sinusitis in most cases by characteristic signs.
Sinusitis is usually accompanied by painful sensations when the head is tilted or turned.
In addition, pain occurs in the frontal sinus and in the temples. Usually unpleasant sensations increase in the evening, and in the morning the symptoms decrease.
Often the first days of inflammation are accompanied by migraines and pain in the upper jaw.
Keep in mind that with severe nasal congestion, the patient may lack mucous or purulent discharge. But when a secret is formed, they are usually accompanied by a strong nauseating smell.
It is possible to determine that the patient has sinusitis due to lack of appetite, rapid fatigue, loss of working capacity. In this case, you need to seek the help of specialists as soon as possible.
Check if sinusitis is possible by palpation. If, when touching the nasal cavity, the patient feels unpleasant sensations, which are accompanied by pain inside the patient's nose, sinus inflammation.
Besides, pay attention to the patient’s voice. In acute sinusitis, a nasal voice appears, and a strong inflammatory process is accompanied by an abundance of secretions. With the progression of the disease, the patient has snot of a dark brown color with an admixture of pus. Often, sinusitis is accompanied by bleeding.
The color of the discharge may vary depending on the process of development of the pathology. During diagnosis, they can determine the degree of inflammation, as well as its nature.
Causes of occurrence
There are many factors affecting the appearance of the disease. Most often, it appears due to untreated rhinitis in acute form. Another equally common reason is the use of drugs without consulting a doctor.
Other causes of the disease are:
- recurrent inflammatory processes in the upper respiratory tract,
- pathology in the maxillary sinuses,
- body hypothermia,
- chronic rhinitis
- nasal trauma
- chronic inflammation
- anatomical disorders of the nose.
Despite such a variety of reasons, the disease most often appears in people with a weakened immune system.
When sinusitis begins, the science of psychosomatics usually notes the following reasons:
- constant weakness
- dissatisfaction with life
- low self-esteem,
- anxiety state.
Thus, psychosomatic symptoms indicate that the ailment provokes a lack of care and attention to the person.
To determine the disease, you need to know how sinusitis manifests itself. The main symptoms are:
- it's hard to breathe through your nose
- a pressure is felt above the bridge of the nose
- temperature rise,
- loss of smell
- uncomfortable when in the light,
- pain in the temples and forehead,
- swelling of the face
- pus in the nasal discharge.
Here one can note one feature of the disease, which will tell you how to distinguish sinusitis from the common cold: it is pus in the snot. With normal rhinitis, the nose is stuffed no less, but the discharge is different.
How to determine sinusitis yourself
The initial stage of sinusitis is very similar to ordinary rhinitis. It is difficult to notice anything unusual. To understand how to determine sinusitis, you need to pay attention to some signs.
After some time, the patient begins to feel pain when turning the head or tilting. Also, pain symptoms are present near the temples and in the frontal sinus. It is characteristic that they become especially strong in the evening. In the morning, they are not so depressing.
You need to pay attention to headaches. The disease is often accompanied by migraines. Pain in the upper jaw may also be felt.
Among other signs by which you can determine a common cold or sinusitis is a poor appetite, loss of performance. Also, the voice becomes slightly nasal. With the further development of the disease, discharge from the nose becomes dark brown, pus is mixed with them. There may be spotting.
How else to understand that you have sinusitis? This is indicated by a constant headache, and during a blowing sensation a shooting pain appears.
Determination of the type of sinusitis
Two types of sinusitis are distinguished: acute and chronic.
The acute stage is characterized by headaches, a feeling of pressure in the forehead and upper jaw, purulent discharge from the nose. Also, for this type of disease, a symptom is a high temperature (above 38 degrees). General weakness is observed.
With the development of sinusitis, pain increases, the pain is no longer localized, but gives to the entire facial part. Often, the patient cannot even determine exactly where it hurts.
Chronic sinusitis does not have such a pronounced symptomatology as acute. The pains are not so sharp, they are periodic. In the morning, the patient's eyelids swell. The nose is constantly blocked. the temperature increase is fixed, but it is below 38. The general condition of the body is deteriorating: working capacity is reduced, memory problems are possible.
Clinical diagnosis of sinusitis
To determine whether sinusitis is present, only a certain set of symptoms is not enough. To make a correct diagnosis, you need to contact the clinic, where the doctor will prescribe a number of diagnostic procedures.
First of all, the doctor will conduct an individual examination, using special tools. If the mucous membrane in the maxillary sinuses is swollen and reddened, then this is one of the signs of advanced sinusitis.
Next, bacteriosis of mucus is performed. With its help, the microflora of secretions is determined. You can find out the cause of the disease to prescribe the right treatment option.
An important diagnostic step is x-ray. Sinusitis is clearly visible in such pictures. Shaded areas in sinuses are clearly visible, the level of filling with pus is visible. If in doubt about the exact diagnosis, they resort to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
It is possible to determine sinusitis by puncture of the sinuses. Sometimes this is a healing procedure. But in addition to this purpose, a puncture helps with diagnosis: it is possible to take material for analysis.
Diagnosis of sinusitis in children
The peculiarity of the children's body is that the maxillary sinuses are not yet fully developed. The child's immunity successfully copes with this disease. However, at school age, the risk of illness increases. Sinusitis can be the result of not completely treated viral, colds, stomatitis, scarlet fever. The cause may be polyps.
Symptoms in children are similar to signs of illness in adults. It can be:
- difficulty breathing through the nose,
- regular colds
- an increase in adenoids,
- regular coughing at night
- swelling of the mucous membrane,
- purulent discharge
- odor from the mouth.
Treatment is carried out according to the following scheme.
At the first stage, the main symptom of the disease is removed - reporting. Also, the procedures are aimed at normalizing the process of removing fluid from the sinuses. Further efforts are directed towards eliminating the cause. For the most part, these are viruses, so a course of antibiotics is recommended.
The injection of drugs through a puncture is indicated. This is done at the first stage of treatment. When the resorption stage begins, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy, massage. Perhaps the use of UHF currents, inhalation, acupuncture.
To understand that sinusitis is cured, you can make a repeated radiograph. The dynamics of the disease will be clearly visible on it. If necessary, a second course of treatment is prescribed or the current one is adjusted.
How to find out that sinusitis passes? Symptoms gradually disappear: temperatures normalize, pus disappears in the secretions, pain disappears, and the general condition of the body improves. However, one should not rejoice ahead of time. It is important to complete the treatment even if it seems that everything is behind.
Sinusitis is a serious ENT disease. Therefore, you definitely need to know how to avoid sinusitis.
You need to start taking measures against this disease already when a runny nose has manifested. In no case should you run it. You need to understand that untreated rhinitis is the greatest risk of further complications. And excuses like “I’ve treated” will not help here. After a course of therapy prescribed by a doctor, you need to check the result of treatment.
You can give some tips for the prevention of the disease:
- avoid hypothermia,
- strengthen immunity
- treat ENT diseases in a timely manner.
Sinusitis is a viral disease accompanied by inflammation of the upper sinuses. At first glance, it looks like an ordinary runny nose. But in the future, painful sensations appear, the temperature rises, pus appears in the secretions. In this case, you must immediately go to the hospital. After a series of studies, the doctor will be able to correctly diagnose and prescribe effective treatment. It is possible to understand that sinusitis has passed by the absence of symptoms of the disease, as well as by making a second x-ray.