The main element of any military operation taking place in the village is the storming of buildings. As a matter of fact, the operation itself for the most part consists of numerous successive assaults.
There are two main options for mastering a building:
1. An attack in the forehead on the move or the so-called dynamic assault.
2. A detailed designed capture operation.
This option is acceptable only if the attacking side has an overwhelming advantage in firepower and operates with the support of armored vehicles and artillery. In addition, in the assaulted building there should be no hostages who will almost certainly suffer from heavy fire to destroy.
Dynamic assault is carried out according to the following scheme:
- The attacking unit and the armored vehicles supporting it open fire at all firing points and even just the windows of the building to be captured. The objective of this attack is to inflict as much damage as possible on the enemy, demoralize him, and break the will to resist. A special role in this shelling is played by snipers, who, under the guise of other weapons, can safely do their job.
- The unit is divided into two groups, one that goes directly to the assault, the other that provides cover. A connection should be established between both of these groups, and if this is not possible, the commanders of both groups must agree in advance on a further plan of joint action.
- As soon as the assault group goes on the attack, the cover group transfers all the fire to the upper floors of the building, otherwise there is a real danger of catching their own. At the same time as the signal for an attack, artillery completely stops shelling, and armored vehicles use only machine guns, which also focus fire on the upper floors.
- Penetration into the building is best done through fresh breaches in the walls, which were provided by artillery or the assault group itself did with explosives or grenade launchers. Using breaks, you can bypass the sectors that were shot by the defenders, as well as protect yourself from mines and traps installed at the entrances.
If the attacking unit does not have enough strength for a head-on assault on the move, you should not even try to do this, because the losses during this venture can be unreasonably high, up to the death of most of the fighters.
So, if the commander determined that the assault of the building on the move is not possible, his unit takes up positions on the approach to the object, trying to cover it as much as possible, and ideally surround it. This is necessary not only to break the connection of the defenders with their main forces, but also in order to be able to examine the entire building and find the most vulnerable area in the enemy’s defense.
Based on the results of the observations, an assault plan is being developed, which should be as unexpected as possible for the defending side. Of course, each assault is deeply individual, therefore it is not necessary to talk about a template or a scheme for taking it from a textbook, but there are a number of recommendations that will come in handy in the vast majority of cases.
- The assault on the building must be preceded by thorough reconnaissance, which can continue even for several days. With its help, information is collected on the size of the enemy, his firing points, on the fire organization system, on the thickness of walls and ceilings, on the location of entrances, on hidden embrasures, on engineering barriers and mines, on the layout of premises, etc.
- The attacking unit is divided into three parts: the assault group (or groups), the consolidation group and the reserve.
- The assault group is equipped only with light weapons: an assault rifle with an under-barrel grenade launcher, disposable Bumblebee type flamethrowers, hand grenades, a knife, a small sapper blade. Particular attention should be paid to the number of hand grenades. There should be at least 10-12 pieces. Even in the instruction to the defenders of Stalingrad it was said: “A soldier, before you step around a corner, go into a room or go down to the basement, throw a grenade there. The next room is the next grenade. ” In addition to a large number of grenades, the attack aircraft are also given increased ammunition, since during the capture the fighters should not stop, reduce the onset rhythm and pressure in anticipation of the delivery of ammunition.
- The assault group is divided into deuces or triples, whose fighters must act together and insure each other.
- The assault on the building should be carried out during daylight hours. In the dark, having a very vague idea of the layout of the premises, not owning information about the internal fortifications and landmines, the attacking unit risks falling into a trap and being completely destroyed. Only a specially trained unit can attack the building at night, the equipment of which includes night vision devices, tactical lights, silent weapons, individual means of communication, etc.
- The assault on the building should begin with the shortest distance possible. 25-30 meters - this distance has become an unwritten rule for Russian soldiers during the fighting in Grozny. In order to get so close to the object, they had to move through the cellars, tunnels of underground utilities, and sometimes dig trenches for several nights, which were carefully masked at dawn. Also, for a secretive approach to the building, a smoke screen or night darkness can be used.
- The assault on the building should begin suddenly and take place as quickly as possible, since any hitch allows the enemy to come to their senses, regroup and organize the defense.
After the assault group broke into the building, its cleaning begins.
Some rules for stripping:
- Moving inside the building should be very fast, do not stop in the middle of rooms and flights of stairs.
- To enter the premises or for turns only after throwing a grenade, but even after that it will not be superfluous to shoot particularly suspicious parts of the room, especially furniture.
- Look corners as close to floor level as possible. In this case, it should be ensured that the barrel of the machine gun, ammunition or other parts of the body do not pop out first and thus do not warn the enemy.
- Check dark corners and corridors with automatic bursts.
- Throwing a grenade up, you should consider the option that it can bounce off an obstacle and return to its owner.
- You should not shine in the window openings, otherwise you can get a bullet both from the enemy who has settled in the neighboring building, and from your own cover group.
- When moving pairs or triples, in no case should the enemy be wedged between the fighters. In this case, the enemy has the opportunity to freely open fire, and members of the group run the risk of shooting each other.
- Fire on the enemy should be opened only by visual contact. It is forbidden to shoot at the sound, otherwise attackers can hit their own comrades who entered the building from another entrance.
- Inside the building, you should remember the rebound, both from your bullets and from enemy fire.
The above rules are the minimum set of knowledge that a soldier should learn. However, cleaning the building is a difficult operational measure and requires serious special training, which the army units do not have. It can be gleaned only from special methodological developments for fighters SOBR and special forces of the FSB.
Reviews and comments:
I will cite a documentary case from the defense of Stalingrad. In a broken building during the battle at night, two fighters remained: our sergeant and a German a floor below. The hunt began one after another. And the sergeant caught the German on a "fishing rod": he pulled on a rope tied to bricks. The German in the dark still came across a rope, made a noise, after which he received a line from the machine.
The opinion that the assault is carried out quickly erroneous. And punishable by death of personnel. For example, a group of 4 people instantly flies into a building and touches a stretch of MON 50 (for example) resulting in 500 fragments in the face and 4 corpses. This article is true only if the building is not mined
Dear, think about what you wrote: it is dangerous to storm the building, as there may be mines! Then it’s also dangerous to go on the attack, because you can run into a minefield. And how dangerous it is to drive on roads, because landmines can also be laid on roadsides! The presence of mine danger does not cancel the performance of a combat mission. Another thing is that personnel should be prepared for action in case of detection of mines, fortified firing points, etc.
With the constant throwing of grenades into each new room, it is really possible to "squeeze out" the enemy, but before he gets into a dead end. From the deadlock for the next grenade throw, the enemy will most likely jump out on the attack aircraft for a breakthrough, because he has nothing to lose and nowhere to retreat. The attack aircraft will not know about the deadlock, and they will not wait for a breakthrough, but they will wait for the explosion as a signal to attack. The way out - after each cast, pull back the shield with the second number under the cover of the third.
Ways to move an assault group indoors
There are two main types of assault: stealth penetration and dynamic attack.
We will consider a variant of the action of an assault group of five people in a dynamic attack. A dynamic attack is a swift penetration of an object in order to stun and suppress the enemy before he can provide organized resistance. Speed is a key factor in a dynamic assault (although its participants should not go on the run), often using explosives to kick doors or break walls. Other means providing the dynamics of an assault are rams, mounts, special shotgun cartridges that allow you to shoot locks, door hinges, and the like.
When storming premises with a hostage or when capturing an armed criminal, the following tactical method is possible:
- The head fighter, with a shotgun (shooting the lock and hinges) or with the help of a ram, opens the door and retreats to the side, while a light-sound grenade (often two) is thrown inside.
- Number one enters the room, quickly overcoming (cleaning) the doorway. He turns towards the threatening target, stops and takes control of it (strikes). Then he continues to clean the same side (the same sector) of the first room, (30-1).
- Number two, the second person, penetrating through the door, moves in the opposite direction (sector 30-1) and takes control of all threatening targets.
- When 30-1 is taken under control (cleared), arrows No. 1 and No. 2 give the command: “Clean! Let's go!”, Signaling No. 3 and No. 4 that you can safely move through 30-1 to the next room - 30-2 .
- Covering, the fifth number, ensures the security of the team from the rear, and also provides the comrades with other necessary assistance.
- Thus, the use of elements of two people continues until all internal rooms are filled and cleaned.
Another option is basically the same, only the head fighter comes first and works as the first number of the previous example.
In different units, the unequal technique of distributing the movement of the assault after entering the premises is used. Many work out standard schemes - one goes to the right, the other goes to the left, or vice versa. In our opinion, a faster, safer and more effective method is when the first is allowed to choose the direction of his movement, based on the principle of the immediate immediate threat. Then the partner takes on the opposite part of the room.
The distribution of the shelling sectors when entering the room
|An important aspect of indoor combat is the use of zones of responsibility, or "your sector." |
Acting in a group, the fighters after entering the room mentally divide it into parts (sectors) and work only in their sector, until complete control over the room! The exception is the case when the immediate danger arises in the zone of responsibility of the partner who does not see this danger, provided that the shooter is sure that he will not touch his partner with his fire, and there is no danger in his sector or it is neutralized.
Using the principle of sectors, the rooms are cleaned faster, better and most importantly safer for the attackers themselves than if all the arrows tried to control all the zones at the same time.
Bad targets vary in the degree of threat posed. The following factors influence this:
- proximity to location
- degree of armament
- actions performed
- location of the hostages.
Obviously, the immediate threat is neutralized first. Shooting continues until the target is disabled. When confronted with numerous resistance, the shooter can not "linger" on one striker for a long time. He is obliged to hit the first accurately and quickly, without delay, transfer the fire to neighboring targets.
Multiple threats at a medium distance are distinguished by the degree of threat based on the degree of armament. 12 gauge weapons pose a greater threat than a short-barreled weapon, just as an assault rifle prevails over a knife or a baton. An exception may be the situation when the "knife" is in close proximity, and the "rifle" is at some distance. And finally, criminals or terrorists in the immediate vicinity of the hostages must be neutralized immediately before they recover from the action of light-sound grenades.
From experience it is known that the results in shooting are better when a stop is made to produce a shot. Although some units, for example, Israeli, shoot on the go and continue to advance on the threat, this only works for very large and close targets. Where there are many targets, the shooter needs balance and good stability in order to be able to fire at maximum speed. When neutralizing targets in the immediate vicinity of the hostages, or for guaranteed head hits, the shooter needs to stop, aim and shoot. Try both, and you’ll see what works best for your style and ability.
Testing the technology of storming and “stripping” of premises
In the beginning, we dwell on the fact that any tactical action consists of small tactical techniques. Here the analogy with seven musical notes is appropriate - there are only seven notes, and how much music is invented! Also, in the work of the assault group, the execution of a certain number of tactical techniques, of which the picture is formed during a special operation, is brought to automaticity. The only question is what kind of picture the capture group will “draw”, it all depends on the level of intelligence of the employees and their training.
The preparation of assault groups on this, one of the key aspects of combat work, is ongoing, and we will consider ways to make a coordinated, quick and coordinated breakthrough into the room, which reduces the aiming time available to criminals to defeat members of the capture group.
The action of an assault group of four can be considered as the action of two twos, which is practiced at the beginning of classes with a further transition to work in the four, on the principle of "from simple to complex."
Ways "hook" and "cross"
"Hook" is used if employees are armed with short-barreled weapons and the width of the doors allows. The Austrian "Cobra" and the German police, use this method when working with pistols.
Employees at the door, after breaking it, simultaneously kneel down, hold the door jamb with one hand, put the other hand with the weapon forward in the direction of the room, then enter the room at the same time, bending down and controlling each direction or detaining suspects.
The disadvantage of this method is that it will be possible to enter the room only through wide enough doors, since two employees in the narrow doors cannot enter at the same time. Also, the entry can be made sequentially, one after another, which, with a certain operating time, can work out well.
"Cross" or "cross to cross" is used when the width of the doors does not matter, because employees enter one by one. The extension through the plane of the opening begins No. 1. No. 2 coordinates its actions with the actions of No. 1. The latter, in a low stance, enters the room, moving through the opening diagonally, and immediately checks the dead zone directly in the direction of its movement. No. 2 also diagonally crosses the opening almost simultaneously with No. 1 and moves towards the opposite dead zone. Unlike No. 1, it keeps straight, and therefore penetrates the room, literally hanging over No. 1. As a result, both dead zones are cleared almost simultaneously. Каждый из этих двоих в первую очередь всматривается в дальний угол вдоль ближней стены, а затем проводит оружием и взглядом по примыкающей стене до зоны, расположенной по оси проема.
Способы «угол» и «диагональ»
The “corner” is especially appropriate when the door is near the wall and the fighters have to start moving from the side of the door opposite the wall, but can be used in other situations. When performing this technique, two options are possible and No. 1 decides which one to choose as it enters the room first, and No. 2 adjusts to the actions of the guide.
The “Diagonal” is taken from the tactics of the FBI units and is generally similar to the “angle” method, but No. 1 and No. 2 become the back to one of the walls, controlling the entire room each in its sector. This technique can be applied when the cleaned room is the last and the group does not need to move on.
|The "angle" method, option No. 1|
|The "corner" method, option No. 2|
|The way "diagonal"|
Actions of the "four"
The tactics of the assault group can be indicated by the acronym repeating the abbreviation of the Special Airborne Service of Great Britain (SAS):
This tactic is used in any assault, when the main task is to neutralize the criminals due to surprise, swiftness and firepower.
In general, the tactic of “massive attack” is most preferable in a dynamic assault, when as many assaulters as possible break into it to gain control of an object. But four people is considered to be the best option, since a larger number of stormed in the same room can interfere with themselves.
Once again, we draw attention to the fact that with the rapid penetration of four fighters into the premises, it is important to correctly organize the "shelling sectors", which has already been described in previous articles.
From the figures it can be seen that No. 1 and No. 2 go into the room, using the considered methods of penetration for twos, and No. 3 and No. 4 go to the center, towards No. 1 and No. 2, respectively.
|No. 1 and No. 2 go in the way "cross"|
|No. 1 and No. 2 go in a hook way|
|No. 1 and No. 2 go in the "corner" way in different ways|
In some teams, the cleaning of rooms is carried out using the option of the so-called "spreading on the walls." The first two who burst into the room still “clean” the corners, after them two more fighters appear in the room, and control is established over the entire room.
Option for four people to enter two rooms
If during the assault it is necessary to capture a room with adjacent rooms, then the following tactics can be used. The assault group takes its starting position in front of the door leading to the first of the adjacent rooms. After the “Storm” command, the capture group, namely No. 1 and No. 2, bursts through the door and hits the criminals nearby. The last members of the capture group No. 3 and No. 4, who burst into the room, throw an adjacent room with light and sound grenades, and immediately after the explosion, the capture group breaks into the room with the criminals.
Again, you can see that those entering the room use different versions of the “corner” method.
Inspecting and cleaning the building is much easier and safer when the group is working. In the proposed version, the group or operational troika consists of three employees - the leader, covering and guarding. In the diagrams they are indicated by the numbers 1, 2 and 3, respectively. No. 1 leads the battle formation, inspects the premises and “cleans” every obstacle in the group’s path. Shooter No. 2 covers the leader and directly helps him. He assists the first number where an additional pair of eyes is needed in situations where there are two separate potentially dangerous zones, for example, dead zones on either side of a doorway or a T-shaped intersection of corridors. The third member of the group, shooter No. 3, provides security and covers the group from the rear.
In the process of combing or searching, if the layout of the building requires it, members of the group can change roles. Acting as part of a group of three, you can relatively safely inspect the entire building. The group is able to function like a machine gun turret and at the same time control all potentially dangerous areas.
In the event of the loss of one of the members of the group, the position of the guard becomes “vacant”. The group retains the ability to continue to carry out the task, while one of the remaining ones will have to bear a double load and ensure rear security.
When the area behind the group is unsafe, the guard moves along with his two partners, but face back, providing cover from the rear. If the back is “clean,” he can also shift the focus of his attention forward.
The team moves the so-called "clover leaf", that is, a triangular system. The top of the triangle is the leader, and the cover and guard follow right and left. To maintain non-verbal communication, arrows constantly maintain physical contact with each other. All three trunks are directed along the corridor. The leader inspects the space in front, and the axis of sight of his partners intersect, and the sectors of the fire partially overlap one another. In other words, the one on the right controls the left side of the corridor, and the one on the left controls the right. Everyone can fire safely for the rest of the group.
The weapon is held in a “hunting position”, that is, the tip of the barrel is lowered so as not to obscure the visibility, but is not directed to the floor. During the combing process, the trunk is held higher, usually directed to the area being inspected. Sometimes, one of the partners needs to cross your line of fire to control a potentially dangerous area. In this case, in order to avoid accidental defeat, you should lower the barrel of your weapon.
The leader approaches the corner with his cover. A guard keeps them both safe. The leader, again, has a lower stance, leaving the concealer enough space to fire. The coverman moves close to the leader, directly behind him. After a complete cleaning of the top of the corner, the group is again lined with a triangle and continues to inspect the premises.
As the group approaches the intersection of the corridors, the leader and the cover-up occupy the position back to back. Communication between them is through physical contact. Remember that every movement is initiated by the leader. It is he who begins to move in one direction or another. If necessary, the guard covers the leading pair from the rear. If the intersection is end-to-end and the area behind the group is safe, the guard switches to the corridor space in the direction of the group.
After a sector inspection of the transverse corridor, the leader and the one who covers at the same time from the center of their corridor cross the plane of the opening and each on their own side cleans the dead zones of the transverse corridor. They decide in advance which direction (left or right) the group will continue to move, and the leader, naturally, cleans the corridor in this direction.
After clearing the dead zones, the guard takes a place behind the leader and begins to assist him, while the concealer continues to control his direction. With the continuation of the movement of the group along the corridor, the former covering provides security from the rear.
All members of the group approach the door on one side. If the layout allows, they are located on the side of the door handle. The leader and the shutter are engaged in the door itself, and the guard controls the corridor in which the group is located. This arrangement is called a “package." With the beginning of the sector inspection of the room, the leader moves to the opposite rack of the opening due to the door. The coverman moves with him, constantly maintaining physical contact with the leader. While the leader conducts a sector inspection, the cover ensures his safety from the flanks and rear, protecting him from a possible threat from the corridor.
It is important that all members of the group clearly know who is responsible for which zones. If the cover and guard control the same zone, one of them should switch to the other. Over time, the shaper completely switches to observing the corridor from the side of the door in the direction of travel. At this time, the guard (located at the door counter opposite the leader) is engaged exclusively in assisting the leader in his penetration through the door. At this stage, the shielding and the guarding essentially exchanged roles.
The leader begins to advance through the plane of the opening. The guard (acts as a cover) clearly coordinates his actions with the actions of the leader. The latter, in a low stance, enters the room moving through the opening diagonally, and immediately checks the dead zone directly in the direction of its movement. The guard also diagonally crosses the opening almost simultaneously with the leader and moves towards the opposite dead zone. Unlike the leader, he keeps himself straight, and therefore penetrates the room, literally hanging over the leader. As a result, both dead zones are cleared almost simultaneously. Each of these two first peers into the far corner along the proximal wall, and then passes weapons and gaze along the adjacent wall to the zone located along the axis of the opening.
After the first two shooters enter the room, their partner covering the corridor, without ceasing to control their area of responsibility, also moves to the room. All his attention is focused on the corridor, and he takes a place in front of the opening in a low stance (or in the position for shooting from the knee). When the first two finish the inspection of the room, they group behind each other behind it.
Then the group leaves the room and moves further along the corridor. Now the one who controlled the corridor in the process of cleaning the room turns into a leader, and the one who follows him into a cover. The latter automatically assumes the functions of combat guard.
Contact with the enemy
When a member of the group makes contact with the enemy, for example, by giving him commands or opening fire, he automatically becomes a leader and the actions of the other participants in the operation are subordinated to his tactical needs. They must control their own areas of responsibility. If the leader needs help, he requests it from one of the partners. The first assistant usually becomes the cover (the one who is closer). At this time, the guard controls not only his own area of responsibility, but also the one that leaves the guard in his care.
Evacuation of the victim
The likelihood that one of the members of the group will be injured always exists. The most reasonable thing for the members of the group is to work out a procedure in advance in case of adverse events. The basic scheme for the evacuation of the victim is usually built on the basis of the assumption that the leader will be injured, however, during training, it should be possible to injure each number.
If the first number is injured and falls to the floor, the covering person steps over it and opens targeted fire at the enemy. If he hid behind a wall, door, or piece of furniture, the coverter shoots right through the obstacle. At this time, the guard picks up the fallen leader by the arms and drags him dragging for the first shelter that came across, for the nearest corner. Grabbing a wounded man, the guard shouts “Back!”, And then the coverman starts backing away, covering the retreat of his comrades with fire. The technique allows you to remove the wounded from the immediate danger zone. After that, the team can proceed with its evacuation and call for reinforcements.
It is important to note that as soon as one of the partners is injured, you immediately open fire on the shooter.
As a result:
- the adversary will have to take care of his own safety
- perhaps his plans will be disrupted so much that you gain time and can leave the affected area
- the enemy may be wounded or destroyed
In general, the idea is this: in no case do not leave a wounded comrade under enemy fire!
It may be necessary to temporarily leave the building if the enemy was more serious than anticipated, or the layout of the building requires the action of a larger unit. A well-coordinated and safe evacuation involves the presence of a closure that will cover the group’s withdrawal and prevent attempts to pursue it. As soon as the departing are the first to reach the nearest shelter, they will inform the comrade who covers their retreat. The closer confirms the receipt of the message and, in turn, moves to the closest shelter for him, from which he will be able to provide further withdrawal of the group, after which he informs the others. This order of movement is respected until the final point of evacuation. The departure of the group can be represented as the reverse movement by rifts.
Weapon reloading and elimination of delays in firing
Members of the group can support each other during forced manipulations with weapons. Failures and the need to change the store periodically arise during a clash, and the ability to fire and (preferably) hit the enemy must be maintained constantly. Hence the need for cover. If one of the team members is experiencing problems with weapons, then, without having a protective shelter nearby, using a code word (for example, “red”, “empty”, “cover”), calls on one of his comrades to support him. Hearing the code word, the one who is closest understands that the partner needs to leave the affected area and at the same time not inform the enemy about problems with the weapon. He overshadows the comrade and takes over his area of responsibility. Together they move to shelter. The third covers the maneuver and, if necessary, fires at the enemy. When the malfunction of the weapon is eliminated, the shooter shouts out another code word (for example, “green” or “work”), thereby making it clear that he is back in service.
The diagrams below show the actions of American police in an apartment. Schemes reproduce the course of a real combat operation. Track the movement of the group as you inspect the rooms and other rooms of the apartment. Please note that the group retains its integrity as much as possible, and none of the employees are left alone in an unchecked room.